Bor

5
B
Gruppe
13
Periode
2
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
5
5
6
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
5
Atommasse
10,811
Massenzahl
11
Kategorie
Halbmetalle
Farbe
Schwarz
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Arabischen Buraq, Persisch Burah
Kristallstruktur
Einfach Trigonal
Geschichte
Boron compounds have been known for thousands of years, but the element was not discovered until 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and by Gay-Lussac and Thenard.

Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard.

Jöns Jakob Berzelius identified boron as an element in 1824.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 3
Elektronenkonfiguration
[He] 2s2 2p1
B
Boron is an essential nutrient for all green plants
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
2,34 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
2349,15 K | 2076 °C | 3768,8 °F
Siedepunkt
4200,15 K | 3927 °C | 7100,6 °F
Schmelzwärme
50 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
507 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
1,026 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,00086%
Häufigkeit im Universum
1×10-7%
Pure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline boron, front side
CAS-Nummer
7440-42-8
PubChem CID Number
5462311
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
90 pm
Kovalenter Radius
84 pm
Elektronegativität
2,04 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
8,298 eV
Molares Volumen
4,6 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,274 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1, 2, 3
Anwendung
Boron oxide is used in glassmaking and ceramics.

Borax is used in making fiberglass, as a cleansing fluid, a water softener, insecticide, herbicide and disinfectant.

Boric acid is used as a mild antiseptic and as a flame retardant.

Boron shielding is used as a control for nuclear reactors.
Elemental boron, boron oxide, boric acid, borates and many organoboron compounds are non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
10B, 11B
Instabile Isotope
7B, 8B, 9B, 12B, 13B, 14B, 15B, 16B, 17B, 18B, 19B