Beryllium

4
Be
Gruppe
2
Periode
2
Block
s
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
4
4
5
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
4
Atommasse
9,012182
Massenzahl
9
Kategorie
Erdalkalimetalle
Farbe
Schiefergrau
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Griechischen beryllos (beryll)
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered beryllium in the oxide form in both beryl and emeralds in 1798.

Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride.

The first commercially-successful process for producing beryllium was developed in 1932 by Alfred Stock and Hans Goldschmidt.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[He] 2s2
Be
Emerald is a naturally occurring compound of beryllium
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
1,85 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1560,15 K | 1287 °C | 2348,6 °F
Siedepunkt
2742,15 K | 2469 °C | 4476,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
7,95 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
297 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
1,825 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,00019%
Häufigkeit im Universum
1×10-7%
Pure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Pure beryllium bead, 2.5 grams
CAS-Nummer
7440-41-7
PubChem CID Number
5460467
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
112 pm
Kovalenter Radius
96 pm
Elektronegativität
1,57 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
9,3227 eV
Molares Volumen
4,9 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1, 2
Anwendung
Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator.

Beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles and satellites.

Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes.
Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
9Be
Instabile Isotope
5Be, 6Be, 7Be, 8Be, 10Be, 11Be, 12Be, 13Be, 14Be, 15Be, 16Be