Kohlenstoff

6
C
Gruppe
14
Periode
2
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
6
6
6
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
6
Atommasse
12,0107
Massenzahl
12
Kategorie
Nichtmetalle
Farbe
Schwarz
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Lateinischen carbo (Holzkohle)
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 4
Elektronenkonfiguration
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
2,267 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
3948,15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Siedepunkt
4300,15 K | 4027 °C | 7280,6 °F
Schmelzwärme
105 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
715 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,709 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,18%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,5%
Ultrapure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
CAS-Nummer
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
67 pm
Kovalenter Radius
77 pm
Elektronegativität
2,55 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
11,2603 eV
Molares Volumen
5,31 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
1,29 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Anwendung
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
12C, 13C
Instabile Isotope
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C