Zirconium

40
Zr
Gruppe
4
Periode
5
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
40
40
51
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
40
Atommasse
91,224
Massenzahl
91
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Persischen zargun (goldähnlich)
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
6,506 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
2128,15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Siedepunkt
4682,15 K | 4409 °C | 7968,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
21 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
580 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,278 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,013%
Häufigkeit im Universum
5×10-6%
Two
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS-Nummer
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
160 pm
Kovalenter Radius
175 pm
Elektronegativität
1,33 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,6339 eV
Molares Volumen
14,0 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,227 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1, 2, 3, 4
Anwendung
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Instabile Isotope
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr