Niob

41
Nb
Gruppe
5
Periode
5
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
41
41
52
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
41
Atommasse
92,90638
Massenzahl
93
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Grau
Radioaktiv
Nein
Benannt nach Niobe, der Tochter von Tantalu
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch raumzentriert
Geschichte
Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium.

In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium.

The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Nb
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
8,57 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
2750,15 K | 2477 °C | 4490,6 °F
Siedepunkt
5017,15 K | 4744 °C | 8571,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
26,8 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
690 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,265 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,0017%
Häufigkeit im Universum
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure niobium bead, slightly oxidized
CAS-Nummer
7440-03-1
PubChem CID Number
23936
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
146 pm
Kovalenter Radius
164 pm
Elektronegativität
1,6 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,7589 eV
Molares Volumen
10,87 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,537 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Anwendung
Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel.

Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.

The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.

Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers.
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
93Nb
Instabile Isotope
81Nb, 82Nb, 83Nb, 84Nb, 85Nb, 86Nb, 87Nb, 88Nb, 89Nb, 90Nb, 91Nb, 92Nb, 94Nb, 95Nb, 96Nb, 97Nb, 98Nb, 99Nb, 100Nb, 101Nb, 102Nb, 103Nb, 104Nb, 105Nb, 106Nb, 107Nb, 108Nb, 109Nb, 110Nb, 111Nb, 112Nb, 113Nb