Lithium

3
Li
Gruppe
1
Periode
2
Block
s
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
3
3
4
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
3
Atommasse
6,941
Massenzahl
7
Kategorie
Alkalimetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Griechischen lithos (Stein)
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch raumzentriert
Geschichte
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 1
Elektronenkonfiguration
[He] 2s1
Li
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
0,534 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
453,69 K | 180,54 °C | 356,97 °F
Siedepunkt
1615,15 K | 1342 °C | 2447,6 °F
Schmelzwärme
3 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
147 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
3,582 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,0017%
Häufigkeit im Universum
6×10-7%
0.5
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
0.5 grams lithium under argon
CAS-Nummer
7439-93-2
PubChem CID Number
3028194
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
152 pm
Kovalenter Radius
128 pm
Elektronegativität
0,98 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
5,3917 eV
Molares Volumen
13,10 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,847 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1
Anwendung
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
6Li, 7Li
Instabile Isotope
4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12Li