Gallium

31
Ga
Gruppe
13
Periode
4
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
31
31
39
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
31
Atommasse
69,723
Massenzahl
70
Kategorie
Metalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Kristallstruktur
Orthorhombisch basiszentriert
Geschichte
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 3
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
5,907 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
302,91 K | 29,76 °C | 85,57 °F
Siedepunkt
2477,15 K | 2204 °C | 3999,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
5,59 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
256 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,371 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,0019%
Häufigkeit im Universum
1×10-6%
Crystals
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS-Nummer
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
135 pm
Kovalenter Radius
122 pm
Elektronegativität
1,81 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
5,9993 eV
Molares Volumen
11,8 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,406 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1, 2, 3
Anwendung
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
69Ga, 71Ga
Instabile Isotope
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga