Scandium

21
Sc
Gruppe
3
Periode
4
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
21
21
24
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
21
Atommasse
44,955912
Massenzahl
45
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Lateinischen Scandia (Skandinavien)
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 9, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Sc
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
2,989 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1814,15 K | 1541 °C | 2805,8 °F
Siedepunkt
3109,15 K | 2836 °C | 5136,8 °F
Schmelzwärme
16 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
318 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,568 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,0026%
Häufigkeit im Universum
3×10-6%
Ultrapure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline scandium
CAS-Nummer
7440-20-2
PubChem CID Number
23952
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
162 pm
Kovalenter Radius
170 pm
Elektronegativität
1,36 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,5615 eV
Molares Volumen
15,0 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,158 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1, 2, 3
Anwendung
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
45Sc
Instabile Isotope
36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60Sc