Calcium

20
Ca
Gruppe
2
Periode
4
Block
s
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
20
20
20
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
20
Atommasse
40,078
Massenzahl
40
Kategorie
Erdalkalimetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Lateinischen calx (Limette)
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch flächenzentriert
Geschichte
Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 8, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ar] 4s2
Ca
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
1,54 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1115,15 K | 842 °C | 1547,6 °F
Siedepunkt
1757,15 K | 1484 °C | 2703,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
8,54 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
155 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,647 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
5%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,007%
Pure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Matthias Zepper)
Pure calcium in a protective argon gas atmosphere
CAS-Nummer
7440-70-2
PubChem CID Number
5460341
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
197 pm
Kovalenter Radius
176 pm
Elektronegativität
1,00 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,1132 eV
Molares Volumen
29,9 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
1, 2
Anwendung
Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.

It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys.

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium.

Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone.
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 46Ca
Instabile Isotope
34Ca, 35Ca, 36Ca, 37Ca, 38Ca, 39Ca, 41Ca, 45Ca, 47Ca, 48Ca, 49Ca, 50Ca, 51Ca, 52Ca, 53Ca, 54Ca, 55Ca, 56Ca, 57Ca