Kalium

19
K
Gruppe
1
Periode
4
Block
s
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
19
19
20
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
19
Atommasse
39,0983
Massenzahl
39
Kategorie
Alkalimetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
From the English word, potash - pot ashes; Latin kalium, Arab qali, alkali
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch raumzentriert
Geschichte
Potassium's symbol K comes from 'kalium' the name of the element in Germany and Scandinavia.

Potassium metal was first isolated in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly discovered voltaic pile.

Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 8, 1
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ar] 4s1
K
People whose diets are low in potassium can suffer from hypokalemia
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
0,862 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
336,53 K | 63,38 °C | 146,08 °F
Siedepunkt
1032,15 K | 759 °C | 1398,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
2,33 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
76,9 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,757 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
1,5%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,0003%
Potassium
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil
CAS-Nummer
7440-09-7
PubChem CID Number
5462222
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
227 pm
Kovalenter Radius
203 pm
Elektronegativität
0,82 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
4,3407 eV
Molares Volumen
45,46 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
1,024 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 1
Anwendung
The greatest demand for potash has been in its use for fertilizers.

Potassium is an essential constituent for plant growth and is found in most soils.

Potassium nitrate is the main explosive ingredient in gunpowder.

Potassium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of soft soaps and as an electrolyte in alkaline batteries.
Potassium must be handled with great care with full skin and eye protection
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
39K, 41K
Instabile Isotope
32K, 33K, 34K, 35K, 36K, 37K, 38K, 40K, 42K, 43K, 44K, 45K, 46K, 47K, 48K, 49K, 50K, 51K, 52K, 53K, 54K, 55K