Silicium

14
Si
Gruppe
14
Periode
3
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
14
14
14
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
14
Atommasse
28,0855
Massenzahl
28
Kategorie
Halbmetalle
Farbe
Grau
Radioaktiv
Nein
From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint
Kristallstruktur
Diamantstruktur
Geschichte
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 4
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
2,3296 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1687,15 K | 1414 °C | 2577,2 °F
Siedepunkt
3538,15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
Schmelzwärme
50,2 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
359 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,705 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
27%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,07%
Close
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
CAS-Nummer
7440-21-3
PubChem CID Number
5461123
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
111 pm
Kovalenter Radius
111 pm
Elektronegativität
1,9 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
8,1517 eV
Molares Volumen
12,1 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
1,48 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Anwendung
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
Instabile Isotope
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si