Phosphor

15
P
Gruppe
15
Periode
3
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
15
15
16
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
15
Atommasse
30,973762
Massenzahl
31
Kategorie
Nichtmetalle
Farbe
Farblos
Radioaktiv
Nein
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Kristallstruktur
Einfach Triklin
Geschichte
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 5
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
1,82 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
317,25 K | 44,1 °C | 111,38 °F
Siedepunkt
553 K | 279,85 °C | 535,73 °F
Schmelzwärme
0,64 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
12,4 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,769 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,099%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,0007%
Red
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
CAS-Nummer
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
98 pm
Kovalenter Radius
107 pm
Elektronegativität
2,19 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
10,4867 eV
Molares Volumen
17,0 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,00235 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Anwendung
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
31P
Instabile Isotope
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P