Thulium

69
Tm
Gruppe
n/a
Periode
6
Block
f
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
69
69
100
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
69
Atommasse
168,93421
Massenzahl
169
Kategorie
Lanthanoide
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Benannt nach Thule, dem frühesten Namen für Skandinavien
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
9,321 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1818,15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Siedepunkt
2223,15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Schmelzwärme
16,8 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
250 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,16 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,000045%
Häufigkeit im Universum
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
CAS-Nummer
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
176 pm
Kovalenter Radius
190 pm
Elektronegativität
1,25 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,1843 eV
Molares Volumen
18,1 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,168 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
2, 3
Anwendung
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
169Tm
Instabile Isotope
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm