Holmium

67
Ho
Gruppe
n/a
Periode
6
Block
f
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
67
67
98
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
67
Atommasse
164,93032
Massenzahl
165
Kategorie
Lanthanoide
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
From the Latin word Holmia meaning Stockholm
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
Holmium was discovered by Swiss chemists Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878.

They noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element.

Later in 1878, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
Ho
Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally occurring element
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
8,795 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1734,15 K | 1461 °C | 2661,8 °F
Siedepunkt
2993,15 K | 2720 °C | 4928 °F
Schmelzwärme
17 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
265 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,165 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,00012%
Häufigkeit im Universum
5×10-8%
Ultrapure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure holmium
CAS-Nummer
7440-60-0
PubChem CID Number
23988
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
176 pm
Kovalenter Radius
192 pm
Elektronegativität
1,23 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,0215 eV
Molares Volumen
18,7 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,162 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
3
Anwendung
Holmium is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece.

It is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

Holmium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods.
Holmium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
165Ho
Instabile Isotope
140Ho, 141Ho, 142Ho, 143Ho, 144Ho, 145Ho, 146Ho, 147Ho, 148Ho, 149Ho, 150Ho, 151Ho, 152Ho, 153Ho, 154Ho, 155Ho, 156Ho, 157Ho, 158Ho, 159Ho, 160Ho, 161Ho, 162Ho, 163Ho, 164Ho, 166Ho, 167Ho, 168Ho, 169Ho, 170Ho, 171Ho, 172Ho, 173Ho, 174Ho, 175Ho