Nickel

28
Ni
Gruppe
10
Periode
4
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
28
28
31
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
28
Atommasse
58,6934
Massenzahl
59
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Grau
Radioaktiv
Nein
From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch flächenzentriert
Geschichte
Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC.

In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal.

In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 16, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Ni
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
8,912 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
1728,15 K | 1455 °C | 2651 °F
Siedepunkt
3186,15 K | 2913 °C | 5275,4 °F
Schmelzwärme
17,2 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
378 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,444 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,0089%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,006%
A
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
A sheet of nickel
CAS-Nummer
7440-02-0
PubChem CID Number
935
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
124 pm
Kovalenter Radius
124 pm
Elektronegativität
1,91 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
7,6398 eV
Molares Volumen
6,59 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,907 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Anwendung
Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults.

Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water.

Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets.
Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni
Instabile Isotope
48Ni, 49Ni, 50Ni, 51Ni, 52Ni, 53Ni, 54Ni, 55Ni, 56Ni, 57Ni, 59Ni, 63Ni, 65Ni, 66Ni, 67Ni, 68Ni, 69Ni, 70Ni, 71Ni, 72Ni, 73Ni, 74Ni, 75Ni, 76Ni, 77Ni, 78Ni