Vanadium

23
V
Gruppe
5
Periode
4
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
23
23
28
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
23
Atommasse
50,9415
Massenzahl
51
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Benannt nach der skandinavischen Göttin Vanadis
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch raumzentriert
Geschichte
Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801.

In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium.

In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores.

Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 11, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
V
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
6,11 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
2183,15 K | 1910 °C | 3470 °F
Siedepunkt
3680,15 K | 3407 °C | 6164,6 °F
Schmelzwärme
22,8 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
453 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,489 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,019%
Häufigkeit im Universum
0,0001%
Vanadium
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Vanadium crystals made by electrolysis
CAS-Nummer
7440-62-2
PubChem CID Number
23990
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
134 pm
Kovalenter Radius
153 pm
Elektronegativität
1,63 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,8281 eV
Molares Volumen
8,78 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,307 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Anwendung
Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion.

Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft.

Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel.

Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
51V
Instabile Isotope
40V, 41V, 42V, 43V, 44V, 45V, 46V, 47V, 48V, 49V, 50V, 52V, 53V, 54V, 55V, 56V, 57V, 58V, 59V, 60V, 61V, 62V, 63V, 64V, 65V