Plutonium

94
Pu
Gruppe
n/a
Periode
7
Block
f
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
94
94
150
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
94
Atommasse
[244]
Massenzahl
244
Kategorie
Actinoide
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Ja
Named after the planet Pluto
Kristallstruktur
Einfach monoklin
Geschichte
Plutonium was first produced in 1940 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, Joseph W. Kennedy and Arthur Wahl.

Plutonium-238 was produced by deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley.

The Berkeley team made neptunium-238 which decayed to plutonium-238.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Pu
The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945 had a plutonium core
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
19,816 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
912,55 K | 639,4 °C | 1182,92 °F
Siedepunkt
3501,15 K | 3228 °C | 5842,4 °F
Schmelzwärme
n/a
Verdampfungswärme
325 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
-
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
n/a
Häufigkeit im Universum
n/a
A
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
A ring of weapons-grade 99.96% pure electrorefined plutonium, enough for one bomb core
CAS-Nummer
7440-07-5
PubChem CID Number
23940
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
159 pm
Kovalenter Radius
187 pm
Elektronegativität
1,28 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,0262 eV
Molares Volumen
12,32 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,0674 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Anwendung
The isotope plutonium-239 is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability.

Plutonium-238 has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers, to reduce the risk of repeated surgery.

Plutonium-238 mixed with beryllium is used to generate neutrons for research purposes.
Plutonium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
-
Instabile Isotope
228Pu, 229Pu, 230Pu, 231Pu, 232Pu, 233Pu, 234Pu, 235Pu, 236Pu, 237Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 243Pu, 244Pu, 245Pu, 246Pu, 247Pu