Thorium

90
Th
Gruppe
n/a
Periode
7
Block
f
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
90
90
142
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
90
Atommasse
232,03806
Massenzahl
232
Kategorie
Actinoide
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Ja
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch flächenzentriert
Geschichte
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
11,7 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Siedepunkt
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Schmelzwärme
16 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
530 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,113 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,0006%
Häufigkeit im Universum
4×10-8%
The
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS-Nummer
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
179 pm
Kovalenter Radius
206 pm
Elektronegativität
1,3 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
6,3067 eV
Molares Volumen
19,9 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,54 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
2, 3, 4
Anwendung
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
232Th
Instabile Isotope
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th