Bismut

83
Bi
Gruppe
15
Periode
6
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
83
83
126
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
83
Atommasse
208,9804
Massenzahl
209
Kategorie
Metalle
Farbe
Grau
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Deutschen Weisse Masse
Kristallstruktur
Moniklin basiszentriert
Geschichte
Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery.

The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements.

In 1753, French chemist Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated that this metal is distinct from lead and tin.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Bi
Bismuth has unusually high electrical resistance for a metal
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
9,78 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
544,65 K | 271,5 °C | 520,7 °F
Siedepunkt
1837,15 K | 1564 °C | 2847,2 °F
Schmelzwärme
10,9 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
160 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,122 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
2,5×10-6%
Häufigkeit im Universum
7×10-8%
Bismuth
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Bismuth crystal with fancy oxide film
CAS-Nummer
7440-69-9
PubChem CID Number
5359367
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
156 pm
Kovalenter Radius
148 pm
Elektronegativität
2,02 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
7,2856 eV
Molares Volumen
21,3 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,0797 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-3, 3, 5
Anwendung
Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is used as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers.

Bismuth oxychloride is used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes.

It has also been used as a replacement for lead in shot, bullets and less-lethal riot gun ammunition.
Bismuth is considered to be non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
-
Instabile Isotope
184Bi, 185Bi, 186Bi, 187Bi, 188Bi, 189Bi, 190Bi, 191Bi, 192Bi, 193Bi, 194Bi, 195Bi, 196Bi, 197Bi, 198Bi, 199Bi, 200Bi, 201Bi, 202Bi, 203Bi, 204Bi, 205Bi, 206Bi, 207Bi, 208Bi, 209Bi, 210Bi, 211Bi, 212Bi, 213Bi, 214Bi, 215Bi, 216Bi, 217Bi, 218Bi