Osmium

76
Os
Gruppe
8
Periode
6
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
76
76
114
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
76
Atommasse
190,23
Massenzahl
190
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Schiefergrau
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Griechischen osme (Geruch)
Kristallstruktur
Einfach hexagonal
Geschichte
Osmium was discovered in 1803 by English chemist Smithson Tennant in London.

Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia to create soluble salts and observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.

Smithson Tennant analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Os
Osmium is the least abundant stable element in the Earth's crust
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
22,61 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
3306,15 K | 3033 °C | 5491,4 °F
Siedepunkt
5285,15 K | 5012 °C | 9053,6 °F
Schmelzwärme
31 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
630 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,13 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
1,8×10-7%
Häufigkeit im Universum
3×10-7%
Osmium
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Osmium crystals produced by chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS-Nummer
7440-04-2
PubChem CID Number
23937
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
135 pm
Kovalenter Radius
144 pm
Elektronegativität
2,2 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
8,4382 eV
Molares Volumen
8,49 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,876 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Anwendung
Osmium is used alloyed with other metals in the platinum group to produce very hard alloys.

Osmium alloys are used in the tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts

Osmium tetroxide has been used in fingerprint detection and in staining fatty tissue for optical and electron microscopy.
Even low concentrations in air can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os
Instabile Isotope
161Os, 162Os, 163Os, 164Os, 165Os, 166Os, 167Os, 168Os, 169Os, 170Os, 171Os, 172Os, 173Os, 174Os, 175Os, 176Os, 177Os, 178Os, 179Os, 180Os, 181Os, 182Os, 183Os, 185Os, 186Os, 191Os, 193Os, 194Os, 195Os, 196Os