Tantal

73
Ta
Gruppe
5
Periode
6
Block
d
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
73
73
108
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
73
Atommasse
180,94788
Massenzahl
181
Kategorie
Übergangsmetalle
Farbe
Grau
Radioaktiv
Nein
Benannt nach Thantalos, einem Charakter der griechischen Mythologie, Vater von Niobe
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch raumzentriert
Geschichte
Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg in the minerals tantalite from Finland and yttrotantalite from Sweden.

Unfortunately, William Hyde Wollaston claimed Ekeberg's new element was actually niobium, which had also been discovered in 1802.

In 1846, German chemist Heinrich Rose finally proved beyond doubt that tantalum and niobium were different elements.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
Ta
Tantalum occurs principally in the mineral columbite-tantalite
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
16,654 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
3290,15 K | 3017 °C | 5462,6 °F
Siedepunkt
5731,15 K | 5458 °C | 9856,4 °F
Schmelzwärme
36 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
735 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,14 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,00017%
Häufigkeit im Universum
8×10-9%
Tantalum
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Tantalum pieces
CAS-Nummer
7440-25-7
PubChem CID Number
23956
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
146 pm
Kovalenter Radius
170 pm
Elektronegativität
1,5 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
7,5496 eV
Molares Volumen
10,90 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,575 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Anwendung
Tantalum is used in the electronics industry for capacitors and high power resistors.

The high melting point and oxidation resistance lead to the use of the metal in the production of vacuum furnace parts.

Tantalum oxide is used to make special glass with high index of refraction for camera lenses.
Tantalum is considered to be non-toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
181Ta
Instabile Isotope
155Ta, 156Ta, 157Ta, 158Ta, 159Ta, 160Ta, 161Ta, 162Ta, 163Ta, 164Ta, 165Ta, 166Ta, 167Ta, 168Ta, 169Ta, 170Ta, 171Ta, 172Ta, 173Ta, 174Ta, 175Ta, 176Ta, 177Ta, 178Ta, 179Ta, 180Ta, 182Ta, 183Ta, 184Ta, 185Ta, 186Ta, 187Ta, 188Ta, 189Ta, 190Ta