Iod

53
I
Gruppe
17
Periode
5
Block
p
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
53
53
74
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
53
Atommasse
126,90447
Massenzahl
127
Kategorie
Halogene
Farbe
Schiefergrau
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Griechischen iodes (violett)
Kristallstruktur
Orthorhombisch basiszentriert
Geschichte
Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

He treated the liquor obtained from the extraction of kelp, with sulfuric acid to produce a vapour with a violet color.

In 1812, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac demonstrated that iodine was an element and its chemical relationship to chlorine.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
I
Kelp was the main source of natural iodine in the 18th and 19th centuries
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
4,93 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
386,85 K | 113,7 °C | 236,66 °F
Siedepunkt
457,4 K | 184,25 °C | 363,65 °F
Schmelzwärme
7,76 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
20,9 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,214 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,000049%
Häufigkeit im Universum
1×10-7%
Pure
Danksagungen für Bilder: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline iodine
CAS-Nummer
7553-56-2
PubChem CID Number
807
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
140 pm
Kovalenter Radius
139 pm
Elektronegativität
2,66 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
10,4513 eV
Molares Volumen
25,74 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,00449 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 1, 3, 5, 7
Anwendung
Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine.

A solution containing potassium iodide and iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.

Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film.

Iodine is added to table salt to prevent thyroid disease.
Elemental iodine is toxic if taken orally
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
127I
Instabile Isotope
108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144I