Rubidium

37
Rb
Gruppe
1
Periode
5
Block
s
Protonen
Elektronen
Neutronen
37
37
48
Generelle Eigenschaften
Ordnungszahl
37
Atommasse
85,4678
Massenzahl
85
Kategorie
Alkalimetalle
Farbe
Silber
Radioaktiv
Nein
Aus dem Lateinischen rubidus (dunkelrot)
Kristallstruktur
Kubisch raumzentriert
Geschichte
German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy.

The separation of the metal was tried by Bunsen, but he never got samples with more than 18% of Rubidium.

The separation of the metal was only accomplished by George de Hevesy, through the hydrolysis of melted rubidium hydroxide.
Elektronen pro Schale
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
Elektronenkonfiguration
[Kr] 5s1
Rb
Rubidium burns with a reddish-violet flame color
Physikalische Eigenschaften
Aggregatzustand
Fest
Dichte
1,532 g/cm3
Schmelzpunkt
312,46 K | 39,31 °C | 102,76 °F
Siedepunkt
961,15 K | 688 °C | 1270,4 °F
Schmelzwärme
2,19 kJ/mol
Verdampfungswärme
72 kJ/mol
Spezifische Wärmekapazität
0,363 J/g·K
Häufigkeit in der Erdkruste
0,006%
Häufigkeit im Universum
1×10-6%
Rubidium
Danksagungen für Bilder: Wikimedia Commons (Dnn87)
Rubidium metal sample from the Dennis s.k collection
CAS-Nummer
7440-17-7
PubChem CID Number
5357696
Atomeigenschaften
Atomradius
248 pm
Kovalenter Radius
220 pm
Elektronegativität
0,82 (Pauling-Skala)
Ionisierungsenergie
4,1771 eV
Molares Volumen
55,9 cm3/mol
Wärmeleitfähigkeit
0,582 W/cm·K
Oxidationszustände
-1, 1
Anwendung
Rubidium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes and as a photocell component.

Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color.

Rubidium salts are used in glasses and ceramics.

Rubidium-87 is slightly radioactive and has been used extensively in dating rocks.
Rubidium is not known to be toxic
Isotope
Stabile Isotope
85Rb
Instabile Isotope
71Rb, 72Rb, 73Rb, 74Rb, 75Rb, 76Rb, 77Rb, 78Rb, 79Rb, 80Rb, 81Rb, 82Rb, 83Rb, 84Rb, 86Rb, 87Rb, 88Rb, 89Rb, 90Rb, 91Rb, 92Rb, 93Rb, 94Rb, 95Rb, 96Rb, 97Rb, 98Rb, 99Rb, 100Rb, 101Rb, 102Rb